All owners of country plots and cottages in the construction and improvement of the house think about heating and maintaining heat in it. Currently, there is a considerable choice of furnaces and furnace structures for the garden. There are options for stoves with a boiler for water heating, and for heating with wood. Modern models of heating equipment can improve the comfort of the house and even become a decoration of the interior room.
Despite the popularity of fireplaces, many want to build a stove in the house. And this is not surprising, since the brick oven:
- It is an economical heat source;
- Natural materials of construction ensure the environmental safety of housing;
- Will create a cosiness in the house and refinement in an interior.
The heating and cooking furnace "Swede" for today is a popular, convenient and safe room heat generator.
This kind of stove came to us from Sweden - a country with a rather harsh climate and without large reserves of fuel. In addition, most Swedish dwellings of a rather small area, in which the construction of massive and large furnace structures was not possible. In addition, Sweden is famous for deposits of chamotte clay, which is used for the manufacture of such structures.
Therefore, it is not surprising that the first models of such a furnace appeared in this country, when it was necessary to heat houses of small size and cooking.
Equipping the stove with a hob and compactness of the whole structure provided room heating in a fairly short time and preparing food for the whole family, while economically using fuel.
Advantages of the Swedish oven
Among the main features of the furnace "Swedes" are the following.
It can be used not only as a heating room, but also for cooking. The design of the oven allows you to equip it with additional functions, for example, to equip a space under the oven or to store cooked food. In addition, the stove can diversify a place to rest: a sun lounger or other additional structures. Thus, the multifunctionality of the Swedish-type furnace provides the ability to assemble a design of a different type with the addition of additional functions as desired.
Compact in size
The compactness of the dimensions does not eat up too much space, but rather harmoniously complements any interior, being an interesting accent of the room design. If desired, the oven can be decorated with decorative materials.
High level of efficiency
A Swedish oven is an economical option in terms of fuel consumption. Firewood, peat and other solid fuels can be used as fuel.
It is possible to install a similar oven “swedish” on your own without the help of a specialist. You can familiarize yourself with the project, step-by-step instructions and ordering on the Internet. It is very important to understand the drawings, which indicate the sequence number of the calculation of each row of the structure and follow the instructions. Of course, a similar oven can be bought in the finished version, but an independent version will help save the budget.
It should be borne in mind that an important point in the manufacture of the furnace "Swede" is a quality material. To ensure durable use of the furnace, high quality materials are needed.
To install the furnace will need the following materials:
- Chamotte brick. This type of brick contains 80% of refractory clay, due to which it is able to withstand a very high temperature load. A construction made of ordinary bricks may not withstand, crumble and collapse if it reaches very high temperatures.
- Clay. A high-quality clay mortar is required for laying bricks, which will ensure reliability and durability of the whole structure. In order to correctly pick up the clay and independently prepare a solution from it, it is advisable to consult with the furnace workers on this issue.
- Metal parts: dampers, valves, doors. As a rule, are made of cast iron. With the help of decorative similar parts of the furnace, you can give a certain style. When laying, it should be noted that brick and metal have different structures in terms of heat expansion.
- Decoration Materials. They are selected at will and taste, taking into account the financial possibilities and style of the room. Typically used plaster, lime or tile. It is the final finishing stage in the creation of the furnace that will give the whole structure a finished look.
Brick oven "Swede" is installed on the project, a specific scheme, order. Each part of the design has its own characteristics and purpose.
"Swede" must be laid on a pre-prepared foundation. For the foundation, gravel and broken bricks are taken as a basis, which need to be poured with concrete in layers. It should be borne in mind that its size should be larger than the size of the stove itself. The last layer of the foundation is subject to waterproofing, after which the laying of bricks is carried out.
When laying it is necessary to monitor the evenness of the structure. Also pay attention to the seams of the furnace so that they do not contain voids or excess solution. It is important that the seams are not too thick, it is allowed from 0.3 to 0.5 cm. The use of the construction level will help to control the evenness of the seams.
Before proceeding to the layout of the furnace, you must perform the following steps:
- Soak the bricks in the water for a day to fill the pores of the material with water, so that it will not further absorb water from the clay solution.
- Prepare a clay solution of ground clay, sand and water. The proportions of the components are selected according to the quality and characteristics of the clay, so that a solution of homogeneous plasticity and structure is obtained.
The layout of the future stove is carried out in accordance with a special scheme. There are standard designs and layouts, without the skills and experience of building furnaces, it is desirable to use one of them. As a rule, standard procedures are simple and clear, they indicate the necessary materials and the stages of their use.
1-2 rows of stove laying are very important because they are responsible for the reliability and durability of the entire future structure. Therefore, the laying of the first and second rows must be performed with maximum precision and evenness.
At 3-4 rows, it is necessary to form an ash chamber with a door, as well as install a door for the blower and cleaning hatches. On the back of the "Swede" is necessary to lay out the smoke in an upright position.
From the 5th to the 10th row there is a fire chamber and an oven, between which a partition of refractory bricks is laid. It should be borne in mind that the brick fits on the edge.
At 10 (11), the row is laid from the front of the structure with a steel corner, which is attached with wire and clay mortar, as well as an additional plate of cast iron.
From 12 to 16 rows are laid out compartments for cooking and vertical ducts with smoke holes.
17-18 rows occupies the overlap over the cooking compartment, made of sheet steel and a corner.
On the 19-20 rows are located the doors of the hatches for cleaning the exhaust channels.
21-28 rows are occupied by chimney channels with a valve on the 27th row. Above the smoke valve, it is necessary to leave a technological opening through which the ducts will mate with the air ducts.
On the 29-30 rows laid out overlap chimney channels. At these stages it should be borne in mind that the width of the laying along the perimeter should be increased.
At the 31-32 rows laid chimney. This is the final stage of the calculation, if desired, you can finish the design with finishing materials.
Properly executed masonry stove "Swede" will allow heating at the same time several rooms with minimal cost of firewood.
Cooktop and Oven
The metal oven should be in close proximity to the flame. This will ensure that the maximum temperature inside is supplied. Many housewives are pleased with the fact that the burning and spoilage of dishes is excluded, because the fire does not penetrate inside the oven, and cooking takes place due to the high temperature maintained by the walls of the oven.
If a Swedish oven with an oven is considered, the wall thickness should be considered. An oven made of thin iron can quickly burn out, and too massive will remove heat too quickly and warm up slowly, which negatively affects efficiency. The same applies to the plate, it should be made of cast iron.
Where to install the stove?
A stove oven with a stove fits well between two adjacent rooms, for example, as a separation of the kitchen and living room. The part where the stove and oven will be located goes to the kitchen, and the back, where you can equip a place for rest and even a fireplace, into the hall. Thus, it turns out the oven "Swede" with a stove bench.
In principle, the oven "swedish" can be installed anywhere in the room where heating, cooking, and the introduction of a decorative element. In cases where the cooking function is not required, you can consider the option of a stove as a decorative moment and build a structure, for example, in conjunction with a fireplace and decorate it with a finishing material, such as natural stone.
Thus, this design is quite practical option, because using the stove for cooking, the heat produced will not be wasted, but will be spent on heating the room.
Swedish oven with fireplace
It is possible in two ways to combine a Swede stove with a fireplace: simply attach it to the rear of the stove, the chimneys in this case are separate, then it is possible to heat the stove and the fireplace separately. Or connect the stove chimney with a fireplace and bring it into one chimney. To heat in this case, the stove and the fireplace must be separated, so that there is no burn.
Use of stove
It is desirable to build a stove in the warm season, in the summer, so that the masonry can dry naturally. In the case of construction work in the winter, it is possible to dry the masonry with the help of various devices, for example, heat guns.
Thus, it should be borne in mind that it is possible to use the oven “swedish” only after the masonry is completely dry, otherwise it may collapse prematurely.
The test run includes the following actions:
- Fire drying. It is necessary to heat the stove with finely chopped wood twice a day. The most suitable option for the primary furnace is wood that does not emit soot when burning, for example, aspen.
- Inspection of smoke valves. Make sure that there is no moisture on the smoke valves.
It should be borne in mind that the furnace Swede is desirable to regularly drown. In cases of prolonged downtime, it is advisable to re-dry the pre-furnaces.
It is quite possible to build a Swedish oven by your own hands at home, focusing on the project and the instructions of the drawings. If we take into account that a strong frost does not hold up during the whole winter period, then, on average, the efficiency of a Swedish-type furnace during the heating season is slightly inferior to Russian furnaces, but it heats up faster and looks more compact.